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Appendix A

Housing 101

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What is affordable housing?

“Affordable housing” can mean different things to different people. Terms like “workforce housing” are used widely, also. At its essence, “affordability” refers to a household’s ability to pay for housing and still have money remaining for other monthly necessities. Housing typically is defined as “affordable” when it costs no more than 30 percent of a household’s income. Households that spend more than 30 percent of their income on housing are considered to be “cost burdened,” while those that spend more than 50 percent of their income on housing are considered to be “severely cost burdened.”1 For renters, housing costs refer to rental payments and utilities. For homeowners, housing costs include a mortgage payment (including interest), taxes, insurance and utilities, in addition to other relevant costs such as homeowner association fees.

Housing cost burden can mean fewer resources available each month for such necessities as food, transportation and health care, especially for low-income households. Cost burden cuts across renter and homeowner households alike. Although this 101 focuses primarily on affordable rental housing, many programs and policies also support affordable homeownership. A summary of affordable homeownership programs is provided at the end of the following section on common programs that support affordable housing.

Across all types of affordable housing, the need far outweighs the supply. As recently as 2017, for example, an estimated 20.5 million renter households were cost burdened, while an additional 17.3 million homeowners were cost burdened in 2018.2 Data from 2019 reveal that 567,715 individuals were experiencing homelessness, with 30 percent of these individuals in families with children.3 In 2017, less than one quarter of all very low-income renter households that were eligible for federal rental assistance actually received it. Waitlists for public housing and housing choice vouchers (described in the following section) can be years long, if they are open at all. According to one estimate, approximately 4.4 million households were on public housing authority (PHA) waitlists in 2016.4

It bears noting that the burden of an inadequate supply of affordable housing, from high housing cost burdens to homelessness, falls disproportionately on nonwhite individuals and communities of color. To illustrate this inequity, consider that although nearly one in four Black households is severely cost burdened — spending more than half of their income on housing — this is true for just one in 10 white households.5 And African Americans make up more than 40 percent of the population experiencing homelessness, even though they represent only 13 percent of the population overall.6 This disproportionate burden is the result of decades of discriminatory and segregationist policies, a legacy that perpetuates disparities to this day.

[001]

1 “Rental Burdens: Rethinking Affordability Measures,” Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R), U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), https://www.huduser.gov/portal/pdredge/pdr_edge_featd_article_092214.html

[004]

4 Galvez, Martha, Maya Brennan, Brady Meixell, and Rolf Pendall, Housing as a Safety Net: Ensuring Housing Security for the Most Vulnerable (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, September 2017), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93611/housing-as-a-safety-net_1.pdf

[006]

6 “Racial Inequality,” NAEH, updated January 2020, https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/what-causes-homelessness/inequality  

[005]

5 County Health Rankings & Roadmaps, “This Year’s Rankings Explore Severe Housing Cost Burden and Health,” County-by-County Blog, March 19, 2019, https://www.countyhealthrankings.org/news-events/this-years-rankings-explore-severe-housing-cost-burden-and-health

SUBSIDIZED AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Housing subsidies address cost burden by reducing or limiting housing costs, which can include utilities. Housing is considered “subsidized” if financial assistance is used to maintain affordable rents for households at certain income levels (most often for low- or moderate-income households). Subsidies can be tied to the building or unit (“project-based subsidies”) or can be granted to specific households (“tenant-based subsidies”). Project-based subsidies typically are provided to finance the development of the project or to support ongoing property maintenance, in exchange for affordability restrictions (i.e., limits on the rents that can be charged for those units, and limits on the incomes of people who can live there) on a certain number of units in the property. Tenant-based subsidies generally target specific eligible populations (e.g., low-income households or persons with disabilities) and allow households that receive the assistance to choose where they live, so long as they find a landlord that is willing to accept the subsidy. Common project- and tenant-based subsidy programs are explored further in the next section on programs that support affordable housing.

To help understand the role of subsidies in creating and maintaining affordable housing, the Urban Institute has a useful online tool titled The cost of affordable housing: Does it pencil out? that explores the deficit of affordable housing units across the United States.

UNSUBSIDIZED AFFORDABLE HOUSING

It is important to note that not all affordable housing is subsidized. In addition to subsidies, housing costs also can be reduced or suppressed through policies, processes and broader market conditions that impact the cost of development and property maintenance and, in turn, the price residents pay. Housing that does not receive direct subsidy also may be available at an affordable price from private landlords in the housing market, without any subsidy or government support to operate these housing units. In some areas, in fact, this can be the predominant form of affordable housing because of the limited amount of subsidy available compared to the need for affordable housing. These properties may be affordable to lower- income households without subsidy for several reasons, generally relating to the characteristics of the property or the surrounding neighborhood. For instance, the properties may be in poor physical condition, disconnected from amenities or resources like transportation or job centers, or located in a neighborhood that historically has not been considered desirable. In many cases, these neighborhoods suffered from disinvestment as a result of decades of discrimination and systemic racism in the housing sector.

Unsubsidized affordable housing units can be at risk of loss if they are not taken care of and deteriorate past the point of livability or if they are converted to market rate units in response to or in anticipation of growing demand, which can lead to higher cost burden or displacement for existing low-income residents. Programs and policies for the preservation of affordable housing can help protect these units and prevent displacement, regardless of market changes.

What are the most common programs that support affordable housing?

Multiple federal, state and local programs support the creation or operation of subsidized housing for households with varying income levels and characteristics. The most common federal programs are summarized in the following table, and described in greater detail below. Descriptions of additional state and local programs, as well as affordable homeownership programs, are also included at the end of this section on common programs that support affordable housing.

PROGRAM

HOUSING UNITS (MILLIONS)

ADMINISTRATION AND FUNDING

ELIGIBILITY AND RENT RESTRICTIONS

Low-Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC)

3.137

Administered by a state or local tax credit allocating agency (such as a state housing finance agency), LIHTC is funded through tax credit expenditure, enabled by the Internal Revenue Service.

Eligibility: Households earning up to 80% of the Area Median Income (AMI),8 as long as the average overall income of residents in a given property is 60% of AMI or below.


Rent: A household is responsible for paying 30% of the qualifying household income (based on the AMI eligibility tied to the unit).9

Housing Choice Voucher program (HCV)

2.2 10

Administered locally by a public housing authority (PHA), with funding and oversight by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the HCV program enables qualifying households to receive a subsidy (known as a housing assistance payment) to apply toward a rental unit on the private market.11

Eligibility: Households earning no greater than 50% of AMI.

Rent: A household is responsible for paying the difference between the rent charged by the landlord and the housing assistance payment authorized by the PHA.12

Project-Based Section 8 Rental Assistance (PBRA)

1.213

 

Administered by a contract administrator or HUD, the PBRA is funded by HUD and provides affordable homes to qualifying low- income households at select privately owned properties.

Eligibility: Households earning no greater than 80% of AMI.

Rent: A household is responsible for paying 30% of monthly income.14

Public Housing

1.1315

 

Administered by the local PHA and funded through HUD, public housing is the nation’s oldest subsidized housing program.

Eligibility: Households earning no greater than 80% of AMI (and 40% of newly admitted families must be at 30% of AMI or below).

Rent: The majority of households are responsible for paying 30% of their income toward rent. PHAs may require lower rents based on extenuating circumstances, with a minimum of $50 monthly.

[003]

3 “FAQs,” National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH), updated January 2020, https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/homelessness-statistics/faqs

[009]

9 “LIHTC Admissions, Rents, and Grievance Procedures,” National Housing Law Project (NHLP), April 27, 2018, https://www.nhlp.org/resources/lihtc-admissions-rents-grievance-procedures; Payton Scally, Corianne, Amanda Gold, and Nicole DuBois, The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit: How It Works and Who It Serves (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, July 2018), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/98758/lithc_how_it_works_and_who_it_serves_final_2.pdf
 

[008]

8 Area median income (AMI) refers to the household income for the median household in a given region. AMI is calculated annually by HUD for every metropolitan region in the country. AMI is posted here on the HUD website: https://www.huduser.gov/portal/datasets/il.html

[002]

2 Abu-Khalaf, Ahmad, “JCHS’ State of The Nation’s Housing 2019 Report Shows That Renters Remain Widely Cost Burdened Even As Burden Rates Declined Slightly,” Enterprise Blog, June 25, 2019, https://www.enterprisecommunity.org/blog/jchs-state-nations-housing-2019-report-highlights-continued-affordability-challenges

[010]

10 “Policy Basics: The Housing Choice Voucher Program,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP), updated May 3, 2017, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-the-housing-choice-voucher-program

[011]

11 “Housing Choice Vouchers Fact Sheet.” Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/a...

[012]

12 “Housing Choice Vouchers Fact Sheet.” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about/fact_sheet

[013]


13 “Policy Basics: Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” CBPP, updated November 15, 2017, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-section-8-project-based-rental-assistance

[014]

14 “Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” CBPP, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-section-8-project-based-rental-assistance

[015]

15 Docter, Benny, and Martha Galvez, The Future of Public Housing: Public Housing Fact Sheet (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, October 21, 2019), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/101482/The%2520Future%2520of%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Fact%2520Sheet_5.pdf

LOW-INCOME HOUSING TAX CREDITS

The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program is the primary source of financing for the construction and preservation of affordable housing in the United States. Jointly administered by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and state-authorized tax credit allocation agencies, the LIHTC program provides a tax incentive for investors to invest in the acquisition, construction or rehabilitation of affordable housing for low- income households.16

Two levels of tax credits are available, known as 9% or 4% tax credits. While the 9% tax credit is used most commonly for new construction, the 4% tax credit typically is reserved for rehabilitation projects and financing through tax-exempt bonds. See the 2018 Urban Institute report titled The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit: How It Works and Who It Serves for a comprehensive summary of the tax credit program. LIHTC developments are owned and operated by private entities, including for-profit housing developers or nonprofit community development corporations.

Although no operating subsidy is provided to the owner or operator of the housing, the LIHTC program ensures affordability through rent restrictions. As tax credits alone often are not enough to close the gap between development costs and deeply affordable rents, most LIHTC properties have many layers of financing — often including multiple forms of federal or state subsidy — ensuring deeper affordability for low-income households. In fact, many states and localities offer funds specifically designed to help close this gap, sometimes referred to as “gap financing.” Additional types of state and local support for housing are outlined below.

Rent restrictions for LIHTC units are based on what is considered affordable at different percentages of the area median income (AMI), rather than the income of a specific tenant. Projects financed through LIHTC must commit to maintaining affordability for renters with low incomes for at least 30 years. Under this commitment, however, properties are subject to only a 15-year compliance period, during which a state housing finance agency is able to take away or “recapture” a tax credit if LIHTC regulations are not met. Following this 15-year compliance period, property owners may choose to opt out of the program through what is known as a qualified contract, making these properties vulnerable to losing their rent restrictions and affordability under the LIHTC program.17 Many housing advocates at the state and federal level have argued against qualified contracts, arguing that they undermine the intended affordability aims of the program.

Nonetheless, some states may require or prioritize longer affordability periods when awarding tax credits. These criteria are articulated in the state’s Qualified Allocation Plan (QAP), which is required under the LIHTC program and is updated annually to reflect state and local priorities for affordable housing development across a range of categories, including housing location or populations served.18 For information on state QAPs, the Novogradac Affordable Housing Resource Center links to each state’s QAP in its online database

[016]

16 “About the Housing Credit,” A Call To Invest in Our Neighborhoods (ACTION), http://rentalhousingaction.org/about-lihtc

[018]

18 Gramlich, Ed, Qualified Allocation Plan, National Low Income Housing Coalition (NLIHC), https://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/2014AG-259.pdf

[017]

17 “LIHTC Preservation and Compliance,” NHLP, April 27, 2018, https://www.nhlp.org/resources/lihtc-preservation-compliance

HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAMS

The Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program is a federally funded program that is administered by PHAs and allows eligible individuals and families to afford housing in the private rental market. A housing choice voucher covers the difference between the rent a tenant can afford (i.e., 30 percent of their monthly income) and either the gross rent charged or the PHA’s payment standards for that type of unit, whichever is lower. Payment standards are intended to reflect the cost of renting a moderately priced unit in the local housing market and, thus, vary by locale.19 In markets with rapidly increasing housing costs, however, payment standards may not keep pace with local housing costs.

The HCV program includes tenant-based vouchers (TBVs) and project-based vouchers (PBVs), both of which are overseen by HUD’s Office of Public and Indian Housing. Funded by congressional appropriations to HUD, the HCV program serves approximately 2.3 million households annually.20 Overall, at least 75 percent of Housing Choice Vouchers must go to households at or below 30 percent of AMI. TBVs and PBVs are described in greater detail here:

Tenant-based vouchers (TBVs): Households receiving TBVs are able to select and rent units in the private market and put just 30 percent of their income toward rent and utilities. The rest of the gross rent is covered by the PHA (up to the limit of a set payment standard) and paid directly to the private owner.21 To qualify for a voucher, individuals first must apply through their local PHA, often facing closed applications or enduring long waitlists, given the overwhelming demand. If and when households are granted a housing voucher, they generally have 60 days to find a unit that meets their needs and HUD’s basic standards and “lease up.”22

The availability and accessibility of TBVs relies on working directly with landlords in the private rental market, which can be challenging. Some PHAs may have difficulty finding willing landlords or working with landlords to establish payment procedures and ensure that inspections are conducted in a timely manner. Households with TBVs may struggle to identify a landlord who will accept vouchers. Without the protections incorporated into local regulations — often known as “source of income” protections
— landlords have the right to refuse voucher holders, and do so at a high rate.23 Even with source of income protections, voucher holders are denied at higher rates than those without subsidies, particularly in more desirable neighborhoods.24

Project-based vouchers (PBVs): Generally, a housing authority has the ability to designate or “project-base” up to 20 percent of its overall authorized voucher units to specific housing developments. Notably, some exceptions or exemptions apply that allow PHAs to project-base additional units if they meet certain criteria, such as connecting units to supportive services.25 Typically, developments are selected to be able to receive PBVs through a competitive process managed by the PHA.26 PBVs can be assigned to new or existing construction and are tied to specific housing units with housing managers or owners who enter into a contract with the PHA to rent to eligible families. In some cases, PHAs own properties with PBVs. Households living in PBV units put 30 percent of their income toward housing and the PHA covers the rest of the required rent.27 Should a household in a unit with a PBV choose to move out, the unit remains eligible for the rent subsidy and can be occupied by another qualifying low-income household.28

[019]

19 “Housing Choice Vouchers Fact Sheet,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about/fact_sheet

[020]

20 “About the Housing Choice Vouchers Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about

[022]

22 “Housing Search and Leasing,” in Housing Choice Voucher Program Guidebook (Washington, DC: HUD, July 2019), https://www.hud.gov/sites/dfiles/PIH/documents/HCV_Guidebook_Housing_Search_and_Leasing.pdf

[023]

23 “Appendix B: State, Local, and Federal Laws Barring Source-of-Income Discrimination,” in Expanding Choice: Practical Strategies for Building a Successful Housing Mobility Program, by Molly M. Scott, Mary Cunningham, Jennifer Biess, Jennifer Lee O’Neil, Phil Tegeler, Ebony Gayles, and Barbara Sard (Washington, DC: Urban Institute and Poverty & Race Research Action Council, May 2020), https://www.prrac.org/pdf/AppendixB.pdf

[024]

24 Cunningham, Mary K., Martha M. Galvez, Claudia L. Aranda, Robert Santos, Doug Wissoker, Alyse D. Oneto, Rob Pitingolo, and James Crawford, A Pilot Study of Landlord Acceptance of Housing Choice Vouchers: Executive Summary (Washington, DC: HUD, September 20, 2018), https://www.huduser.gov/portal/pilot-study-landlord-acceptance-hcv.html

[025]

25 Sard, Barbara, Project-Based Vouchers (Washington, DC: NLIHC, 2019), https://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/AG-2019/04-02_Project-Based-Vouchers.pdf

[028]

28 “Policy Basics: Project-Based Vouchers,” CBPP, updated March 1, 2017, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-project-based-vouchers

PROJECT-BASED SECTION 8 RENTAL ASSISTANCE

Similar to PBVs, the Project-Based Section 8 Rental Assistance (PBRA) program enables qualifying low-income households to rent units in privately owned buildings. PBRA properties are privately owned and receive operating subsidy from HUD through a multiyear housing assistance payment (HAP) contract. Although HUD receives congressional appropriations annually to fund the renewal of HAP contracts for PBRA,29 Congress has terminated HUD’s authority to sign new contracts.30 This termination means that — unlike the PBVs described previously, which can support new construction projects — no additional PBRA units can be added to the current supply unless current public housing units are converted to PBRA units, such as under a redevelopment program known as Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD). PBRA is overseen by HUD’s Office of Multifamily Housing and units are owned by private, for-profit owners; nonprofit owners; or PHAs with long-term contracts.31 Similar to the other Housing Choice Voucher programs described above, eligible households living in PBRA units put 30 percent of their income toward rent.32  

[029]

29 “Section-8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” CBPP, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-section-8-project-based-rental-assistance

[030]

30 “Renewal of Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/hudprograms/rs8pbra

[031]

31 HUD, Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD): Fact Sheet #10: The Difference Between Project-Based Vouchers and Project-Based Rental Assistance (Washington, DC: HUD),
https://www.hud.gov/sites/documents/RFS10_PBV_PBRA.PDF

[032]

32 “Renewal of Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/hudprograms/rs8pbra

PUBLIC HOUSING

Although the term “public housing” is used widely, the term refers to a specific type of federally funded, permanently affordable and deeply subsidized housing. Created by the United States Housing Act of 1937, public housing is the nation’s oldest subsidized housing program. PHAs administer the program on a local level, providing rental units in PHA-owned properties to households below 80 percent of AMI. PHAs are required to target at least 40 percent of new admissions to households at or below 30 percent of AMI. Individual housing agencies also may create admissions preferences for individuals experiencing homelessness, households led by elderly persons and people with disabilities, or working families.33 As of 2016, PHAs served more than 1.13 million households nationwide via the public housing program.34 Of those households, 91 percent were considered very low income (below 50 percent of AMI), while 72 percent were considered extremely low income (below 30 percent of AMI), a reminder of the role that public housing serves in housing some of the nation’s most vulnerable households.35

Unlike other affordable housing programs, public housing is funded solely through federal dollars and is characterized by public ownership of housing units, in addition to permanent affordability. Housing authorities receive two types of grants from congressional appropriations to HUD, referred to as operating and capital funds.36 The Public Housing Capital Fund subsidizes physical development and maintenance, and the Public Housing Operating Fund provides an ongoing rental subsidy through an annual contributions contract (ACC) between HUD and a given PHA.37 ,38 Although operating and capital funds are intended to cover the gap between resident rent payments and operations and maintenance costs, the reality is that recent funding allocations have failed to fully meet the needs of aging PHA properties. Estimates place the current capital backlog of needed physical repairs and renovations at close to $70 billion,39 increasing by approximately $3.4 billion annually.40

Additionally, the federal government is no longer funding the development of new public housing units and instead is encouraging PHAs to redevelop and modernize properties through public-private partnerships and other financing approaches. In some cases, PHAs may be able to combine federal redevelopment funds, tax credits and other investments to construct new public housing. For the past several decades, PHAs have been able to leverage other competitive federal funding to support the refurbishment, redevelopment or conversion of public housing into other forms of subsidized housing, through such programs as HOPE VI, Choice Neighborhoods or the Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD).41

[036]

36 Gramlich, Ed, 2017 Advocate’s Guide: Public Housing (Washington, DC: NLIHC, 2017), https://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/AG-2017/2017AG_Ch04-S04_Public-Housing.pdf

[037]

37 “Policy Basics: Public Housing,” CBPP, updated November 15, 2017, https://www.cbpp.org/research/policy-basics-public-housing

[039]

39 “Public Housing: Where Do We Stand?” NLIHC, updated October 17, 2019, https://nlihc.org/resource/public-housing-where-do-we-stand

[040]

40 Bell, Allison, and Douglas Rice, “Congress Prioritizes Housing Programs in 2018 Funding Bill, Rejects Trump Administration Proposals,” updated July 19, 2018. https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/congress-prioritizes-housing-programs-in-2018-funding-bill-rejects-trump

[041]

41 “Public Housing,” CBPP, https://www.cbpp.org/research/policy-basics-public-housing

OTHER FEDERAL HOUSING PROGRAMS

Numerous federal agencies manage programs that award funds to states and local jurisdictions to support affordable housing, many more than are highlighted in this 101. In addition to HUD and the IRS, other agencies include the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Veterans Affairs and the Treasury.42 Additional information on federal housing programs is summarized in Federal Funding for Affordable Housing, a resource from the Local Housing Solutions site managed by The NYU Furman Center and Abt Associates. For programs that are specific to rural areas, this list of Federal Rural Housing Programs from the National Housing Conference is a useful reference.

The list below details additional programs managed by HUD that advance the preservation and production of affordable housing.

  • Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Programs: One of HUD’s longest running programs, the CDBG program provides annual grants to states and local jurisdictions, including cities and counties. Governments are able to apply CDBG funds toward a range of community and economic development needs, including housing.43 At least 70 percent of CDBG funds awarded locally must be used for activities that benefit individuals with low and moderate incomes.44 States and localities set priorities for the allocation of CDBG funds through the Consolidated Planning process, which is required by HUD and occurs every five years, with annual updates.
  • Home Investment Partnerships Program (HOME): HOME is managed by HUD and provides grants to states and local jurisdictions to fund a range of affordable housing activities, including tenant-based rental assistance, housing construction and support for public housing, among other uses. These funds often are used in partnership with nonprofit organizations and can be used as grants, direct loans or security deposits, as well as loan guarantees or other forms of credit enhancement.45 State and local priorities for HOME funds also are set through the Consolidated Planning process, as seen in the CDBG program above.
  • Housing Trust Fund (HTF): HUD allocates funds annually to a national Housing Trust Fund. States and other state-designated entities are able to apply for grants through the Housing Trust Fund, which can be used for the production or preservation of affordable housing, with at least 80 percent of each annual grant dedicated to affordable rental housing.46

A number of federal programs also target housing for particular vulnerable populations, such as the elderly or those living with AIDS. Several such programs are summarized below.

  • Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS (HOPWA): The HOPWA program provides federal funding to eligible states, local governments and nonprofit organizations to provide housing and other related supportive services to individuals or families living with AIDS.
  • HUD–Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH): The HUD-VASH program combines rental assistance through the HCV program with supportive services from the U.S. Department of Veterans affairs and is aimed at providing stable, affordable housing and case management for veterans who are experiencing homelessness.
  • Section 202 and Section 811: The Section 202 and Section 811 programs aim to support affordable housing and supportive services for the elderly and populations with disabilities, respectively. Section 202 serves low-income elders over the age of 62. Section 811 serves adults with disabilities with low and extremely low incomes.
[042]

42 McCarty, Maggie, Libby Perl, and Katie Jones, Overview of Federal Housing Assistance Programs and Policy (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, March 27, 2019),
https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL34591

[043]

43 Daniel, Daria, “Affordable Housing Programs and Legislation,” National Association of Counties, May 14, 2018, https://www.naco.org/articles/affordable-housing-federal-programs-and-legislation

[044]

44 “Community Development Block Grant Program,” HUD, https://www.hudexchange.info/programs/cdbg

[045]

45 “Home Investment Partnerships Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing/programs/home

[046]

46 “About Housing Trust Fund,” HUD Exchange, https://www.hudexchange.info/programs/htf/about

AFFORDABLE HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS

Although this 101 focuses primarily on affordable rental programs, affordable homeownership is nonetheless an important element of the housing sector and a critical area of focus for building equity and wealth for families with lower incomes. For households of color, in particular, homeownership has been kept out of reach for decades due to structural racism and discriminatory practices. A summary by the Urban Institute offers a powerful visual of the Black homeownership gap across the United States: Mapping the Black homeownership gap.

Affordable homeownership refers to policies and programs at the federal, state and local levels that enable low- and moderate-income households to access homeownership that is affordable given their household income. Affordable homeownership programs typically intend to make progress on four key elements: affordability, wealth creation, secure tenure and mobility; the last refers to a household’s ability to sell their affordable home and move into other housing in a neighborhood of their choosing.47 Although many programs focus on helping homebuyers, particularly first-time homebuyers, to access affordable homeownership, local governments and nonprofit organizations also have programs that help homeowners with low and moderate incomes to stay in their homes, through housing counseling, foreclosure mitigation, or support for home upkeep and repair. Programs in support of affordable homeownership are included below, along with suggested resources or examples of programs.

Support for first-time homebuyers, such as mortgage interest rate deductions or closing cost and down payment assistance. These financial supports often are offered by state and local governments to qualifying homebuyers and help to make homebuying feasible for households with lower incomes.

SUGGESTED RESOURCES
Local Homebuying Programs | HUD
Homeownership | NeighborWorks America

Shared equity models, such as community land trusts and housing trusts. Shared equity models create affordability for homebuyers through an initial subsidy, typically from a government or nonprofit entity. This affordability is ensured in the long term through resale restrictions in which the homebuyer agrees to share any home appreciation with the entity managing the program. Under a community land trust model, homebuyers purchase the home but lease the land from the trust, making the purchase more affordable and allowing the trust to retain affordability when the home is sold.

SUGGESTED RESOURCES
Shared Equity Homeownership and Community Land Trusts | Grounded Solutions Network
Shared Equity Models Offer Sustainable Homeownership | Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD
Affordable Homeownership: An Evaluation of Shared Equity Programs | Urban Institute

Sale of affordable, deed-restricted properties, with resale restrictions held by government agencies or nonprofit organizations, such as community development corporations (CDCs) or Habitat for Humanity affiliate organizations. Similar to the shared equity models described previously, the use of deed restrictions ensures affordability over the long term.

SUGGESTED RESOURCES
Sustaining Homeownership: The Experience of City-Based Homeownership Programs | Carolina Reid, Community Investments, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
Qualifications for Habitat Homeownership | Habitat for Humanity

Resident ownership models, such as cooperative housing, limited equity cooperatives or resident-owned communities. Resident or cooperative ownership models enable households to have democratic control over multifamily housing buildings or other housing developments, such as manufactured home parks. Limited equity cooperatives refer to cooperative ownership that enables low- and moderate-income households to purchase a share of a property at a below-market rate.

SUGGESTED RESOURCES
About Cooperatives | National Association of Housing Cooperatives
The State of Shared Equity Homeownership | Emily Thaden, Shelterforce
What’s a ROC? | ROC USA
Affordable lending practices can help to make homeownership a reality for families with lower incomes. Programs through Federal Home Loan Banks or State Housing Finance Agencies, in addition to local governments and community lenders, often tailor services to homebuyers with lower incomes, offer straightforward loan products, and can help to lower lending costs for qualifying homebuyers.
SUGGESTED RESOURCES
Affordable Mortgage Lending Guide: Products Offered by State Housing Finance Agencies | Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Affordable Housing Program | Federal Housing Finance Agency

 

It is important to note that, although homeownership remains a cornerstone of wealth building in the United States, this is a very different proposition for households of color, and particularly for those living in segregated, historically red-lined communities.48 In areas where property values may be low, stagnant or even declining, the proposition of gaining home equity through homeownership is much more challenging. Additionally, although affordable homeownership programs offer an important entry point into homeownership for individuals who might not otherwise qualify, these programs also may limit the equity that homeowners can build, due to resale restrictions or other deed requirements. Nonetheless, these programs often are considered to be less financially risky for low- and moderate-income homebuyers because they provide straightforward loan products that are purposefully structured to be affordable to the homebuying household.

[047]

47 Temkin, Kenneth, Brett Theodos, and David Price, Balancing Affordability and Opportunity: An Evaluation of Affordable Homeownership Programs with Long-Term Affordability Controls (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, October 2010). https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/29291/412244-Balancing-Affordability-and-Opportunity-An-Evaluation-of-Affordable-Homeownership-Programs-with-Long-term-Affordability-Controls.PDF

[048]


48 Perry, Andre, Jonathan Rothwell, and David Harshbarger, The Devaluation of Assets in Black Neighborhoods: The Case of Residential Property (Washington, DC: The Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings, November 27, 2018), https://www.brookings.edu/research/devaluation-of-assets-in-black-neighborhoods

STATE AND LOCAL HOUSING PROGRAMS

In addition to the federal programs described in the previous sections, many state and local housing programs support the accessibility and availability of affordable housing locally. Although federal funds and programs for affordable housing reach millions of households annually, the need for housing support nonetheless far exceeds the supply. Local governments have a range of tools at their disposal to promote affordable housing, from indirect incentives to direct development approaches. Examples and suggested resources for local housing programs and policies are included below. Helpful information on state and local housing policies is summarized on the Local Housing Solutions site.

Inclusionary zoning laws promote the creation of affordable housing by encouraging or mandating that developers set aside a determined percentage of housing units to be rented or sold at below-market prices.
SUGGESTED RESOURCES
Exploring Inclusionary Zoning’s Effect on Affordable Housing | Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD
Inclusionary Zoning | Urban Institute
Housing and Health: The Role of Inclusionary Zoning | HealthAffairs
Housing trust funds are funds established by local governments (city, county, state) to receive public funding dedicated specifically to supporting the preservation and production of affordable housing. Typically, funds are flexible and can be used for affordable rental or homeownership.
SUGGESTED RESOURCES
Housing Trust Funds: The Basics | National Housing Conference
Opening Doors to Homes for All: The 2016 Housing Trust Fund Survey Report | Housing Trust Fund Project, Center for Community Change
Rental assistance programs administered locally resemble housing choice vouchers, described earlier, but are funded and managed by local governments. Because federally funded programs serve only one in four eligible households, city and state programs are intended to broaden the reach of much-needed housing support.
SUGGESTED RESOURCES
State and City Funded Rental Housing Programs | National Low Income Housing Coalition
Public land disposition refers to the strategic decision of local governments to dispose, or designate, publicly owned land or buildings specifically for the development of affordable housing.
SUGGESTED RESOURCES
Use of Publicly Owned Property for Affordable Housing | Local Housing Solutions
Using Public Land to Create Equitable Communities: Policy Best Practices | Craig Adelman and Devin Culbertson, Living Cities
Land banks are public or nonprofit organizations that acquire and manage property that can be designated or developed for public use, such as affordable housing.
SUGGESTED RESOURCES
Land Banks Overview | Local Housing Solutions
Land Banking | County Health Rankings

What types of organizations typically work in housing at the local level?

Numerous organizations work in housing at the local level as owners, managers, developers, advocates, service providers or lenders. Depending on the community, these organizations may have varying roles and levels of coordination. The table below describes the roles of many common housing organizations and the geographic areas they serve.

HOUSING ORGANIZATION

DESCRIPTION OF ROLE

GEOGRAPHIC AREA SERVED

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs)

CDFIs are private financial institutions that are dedicated to affordable lending practices. These institutions lend to a range of community businesses, including those involved in affordable housing development. CDFIs have four main sectors that are active in local affordable lending: community development banks, community development credit unions, community development loan funds and community development venture capital funds.

National, regional or local

Continuums of Care (CoCs)

CoCs are planning bodies that coordinate funding for housing and services for individuals and families experiencing homelessness at a local level, typically within a city, county or metropolitan area. Approximately 400 CoCs operate across the United States.49 Competitively funded by HUD through the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Grants program, the CoC program aims to bring organizations together into a local coalition aimed at ending homelessness.50 CoCs may include state and local agencies, nonprofits, philanthropies and, often, a local public housing authority (PHA). CoCs identify the service and housing needs of the population experiencing homelessness and coordinate emergency shelter, transitional housing and permanent supportive housing. CoCs also are responsible for a biannual count of the population experiencing homelessness in its service area, as well as for an annual count of the emergency systems, transitional housing and shelter beds in the area. These counts are maintained in a local Homeless Management Information System and are an important resource for understanding needs and redirecting services, funding and other resources to best meet local needs.51

 

State, regional or local

Homeless Service Providers

Homeless service providers offer support services to individuals and families, including shelter and other services. Homeless services and shelters often are run by nonprofit organizations, or local and state governments, with funding allocated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. In addition to government funding, philanthropic giving plays a large role in funding nonprofits and other agencies providing homeless services and shelter.

Regional or local

Housing Advocates and Cross-Sector Coalitions

Housing advocates and cross-sector coalitions work to direct funding to affordable housing and influence policy change and regulations that spur affordable housing development and benefit people living in poverty.

National, state, regional or local

Housing Developers, Owners and Community Development Corporations (CDCs)

Housing developers and owners can be nonprofit organizations or for-profit entities that build or preserve affordable housing using federal, state or local programs. CDCs are nonprofit organizations dedicated to community revitalization that often focus specifically on the development of affordable housing.

National, state, regional or local

Local Government Agencies and Elected Officials

Local government agencies provide funding for affordable housing; for example, dedicating land or funding for housing development, providing local housing vouchers, or assigning other emergency funding to address homelessness. Common agencies involved in housing-related decisions include departments of housing, departments of planning or economic development, and mayor’s offices, as well as city councils. Local governments also dictate development regulations that affect the location and scale of housing, such as density and height limits, parking requirements, and permitting.

Local

Public Housing Agencies (PHAs)

PHAs administer the public housing program and Housing Choice Voucher program at the local level. Overall, approximately 3,300 public housing agencies administer programs locally across the United States.52 For many years, PHAs managed a traditional portfolio of public housing units, but these agencies have started to diversify and are involved in other forms of housing assistance, including the HCV program, state and local housing programs, and other development or redevelopment efforts in their jurisdictions. In fact, some PHAs may manage only public housing, or only voucher programs.


The Moving to Work (MTW) Demonstration exempts select PHAs from certain public housing and HCV rules, giving them greater flexibility in their use of federal funds. In many cases, PHAs use their MTW status to implement innovative programs, establish partnerships with local schools and other organizations, and hire additional staff.

 

State, regional or local

Service Providers

Service providers offer supportive services to households living in affordable units. A housing owner or property manager typically works with service providers, whether public agencies or nonprofit organizations, to engage with residents and offer services on-site. Many affordable housing developments have a staff member or contractor dedicated to managing resident services.

Regional or local

State Housing Agencies

State housing agencies, sometimes referred to as state housing finance agencies, can administer local housing development or assistance programs, financing for housing development, and state-level tax credits for property development through the Low- Income Housing Tax Credit program.

State or local

Tenant Advocacy Organizations and Tenant Associations

Tenant advocacy organizations, such as Legal Aid or other fair housing organizations, advocate on behalf of individuals or groups of tenants to, for example, address discrimination and uphold fair housing laws, prevent unlawful evictions, or petition for higher standards of housing quality.

Tenant associations are organizations made up of residents living in a particular building, development or geographic area. Tenant associations often advocate for resident needs, inform residents of their rights, communicate with tenants and property owners, and help to facilitate changes, such as building improvements.

Regional or local

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49 “Continuum of Care,” Center for Evidence-based Solutions to Homelessness, http://www.evidenceonhomelessness.com/factsheet/continuum-of-care

[050]

50 “What Is a Continuum of Care?” NAEH, January 14, 2010, https://endhomelessness.org/resource/what-is-a-continuum-of-care

[051]

51 “What Is a Continuum of Care?” NAEH, https://endhomelessness.org/resource/what-is-a-continuum-of-care

How is affordable housing regulated?

No single governing body or process oversees affordable housing locally. Depending on the program, oversight and accountability vary greatly. Because subsidized affordable housing programs are administered at the federal, state and local levels, regulations and compliance standards vary, although many follow standards established by HUD. When affordable housing developments utilize multiple funding programs, they must meet all relevant standards for compliance and reporting. A brief summary of regulations for several of the most common housing programs (described previously in the section on common programs that support affordable housing) are included in the table below:

PROGRAM

REGULATORY OVERSIGHT

SUMMARY OF REGULATIONS

Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC)

Internal Revenue Service, state housing finance agencies and investors

For the LIHTC program, developers must submit projects that qualify under a state’s Qualified Allocation Plan (QAP), which awards funding based on specific standards and sets out requirements for eligibility over time, including long-term affordability. Depending on the entity that syndicates the tax credit for the LIHTC program, the development then will be inspected by an asset management team, ensuring that the building is maintained at a reasonable standard.

Housing Choice Voucher (HCV)

Public housing authorities (PHAs) and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

The HCV program is regulated nationally by HUD and administered locally by PHAs, which must ensure that tenants are income-qualified and that the units owned by private landlords meet federal housing quality standards, with reasonable market rents.53 The HCV program is overseen by HUD through the Office of Housing Choice Vouchers, part of the Office of Public and Indian Housing.

Project-Based Section 8 Rental Assistance (PBRA)

HUD or Performance-Based Contract Administrators (PBCAs)

PBRA contracts are executed directly with property owners and administered either by HUD or PBCAs. PBCAs are select state and local housing authorities that have been assigned the right to administer PBRA contracts under HUD oversight.54 Oversight includes monitoring of the physical condition and financial operations of the PBRA properties.55

[055]

55 Project-Based Section 8 Rental Assistance FAQ, NCSHA, https://www.ncsha.org/wp-content/uploads/Project-Based-Section-8-Rental-Assistance-FAQ-2019-1.pdf

Public Housing

PHAs and HUD

Public housing is regulated nationally by HUD and administered locally by PHAs, which are responsible for ensuring that tenants are income-qualified and that buildings are maintained at a reasonable standard. For example, HUD’s Real Estate Assessment Center (REAC) provides local PHAs with a standardized physical inspection that allows greater accountability regarding building quality and resident satisfaction in public housing properties. Public housing is overseen by HUD through the Office of Public and Indian Housing.

How is housing provided for individuals or families experiencing homelessness?

Assistance is provided to individuals and families experiencing homelessness through a variety of programs. Enrollment in these programs is dependent on the needs of any given individual or family and the available resources at the time they enter the homelessness system locally. The main distinctions between the various homeless programs are the length of stay or financial assistance provided and the scope of supportive services offered. Common programs include the following:

  • Emergency Shelter: Emergency shelter, in which individuals and families are offered shelter in a homeless facility for a set period of time, often is the first entry point into the homeless system. Although emergency shelter may offer only limited private space and limited shared living space, it nonetheless is a critical service for individuals and families who experience homelessness. Defined as temporary spaces, with limited space for children to do homework or play, research has found that emergency shelters are unhealthy for family stability and child well-being.56
    [056]

    56 Cunningham, Mary, Sarah Gillespie, and Jacqueline Anderson, Rapid Re-Housing: What the Research Says (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, June 2015), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/54201/2000265-Rapid-Re-housing-What-the-Research-Says.pdf

  • Transitional Housing: Transitional housing is designed to provide shelter to individuals or families experiencing homelessness for up to two years. As the name suggests, transitional housing offers subsidized housing with supportive services designed to help individuals or families experiencing homelessness secure employment, become self-sufficient and transition out of the homelessness system. Transitional housing ranges from independent units to congregate living facilities. The program often requires job training or employment as part of eligibility for the housing, which can pose a barrier to entry for those currently experiencing homelessness.
  • Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH): PSH provides the longest and most in-depth support for individuals and families transitioning out of homelessness through permanent affordable housing (with no set time limit) that includes access to supportive services tailored to meet residents’ needs. In the case of households with children, PSH programs primarily serve families that include parents with disabilities that render them unable to maintain stable housing without additional support.
  • Rapid Re-housing: Focused on providing immediate housing stability, rapid re-housing is an intervention that helps individuals and families exit the homeless shelter system quickly. Rapid re-housing programs place individuals or families into housing and provides short-term help with housing expenses, including rent arrears, ongoing rent assistance and moving costs. Although this approach has been shown to be very successful for families, it is not a long-term solution for households that are unable to access regular employment and afford market rents.

What is the impact of affordable housing on families?

Affordable housing can have a significant impact on resident health, overall stability, mental health and employment opportunities. Housing assistance has been proven to reduce homelessness, housing instability and overcrowding, which can then contribute to other positive outcomes for children and families.57 For families with children experiencing homelessness, a vast body of research points to the interconnectedness of housing status and children’s development.58 Housing assistance often ensures stability — which, in turn, leads to improved educational performance, mental and physical health, and overall child well-being.59 In some cases, HCVs also may enable families to live in safer, lower-poverty neighborhoods with access to higher-quality schools and other services, which may facilitate better life outcomes.60

In contrast, a lack of affordable housing or housing discrimination in higher-opportunity areas may lead families to live in overcrowded or lower-quality housing in distressed — and often highly segregated — neighborhoods. Research has shown that living in a lower- poverty neighborhood can positively impact a child’s economic outcomes later in life.61

Embedding additional services in affordable housing programs is one way to further improve resident outcomes. Within the public housing program, several programs are geared toward helping residents gain self-sufficiency and economic mobility. The Family Self-Sufficiency program creates an interest-building escrow account for participating residents who receive workforce training, job search assistance and other services to support increased income, all while maintaining access to rental subsidy.62 Jobs Plus is another program that aims to connect residents to jobs with case management services.63 Many PHAs also have a Resident Opportunities and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS) Grant Program Coordinator who assesses resident needs and coordinates local resources.64

Many of the above programs seek to offset or directly address a structural challenge of subsidized housing, in which residents may have a disincentive to increase household income out of fear of losing their rental subsidy entirely. The structure of subsidized housing programs may create a “cliff effect,” in which a marginal increase in a household’s income can lead to a steep decrease in or loss of their housing subsidy. With a demand for affordable housing that far exceeds supply, and a lack of housing assistance for households earning moderate incomes, the cliff effect illustrates the harsh realities of the current housing market. Households receiving assistance are required to report changes in income so that adjustments can be made to their payment standard, which may inadvertently disincentivize earning higher wages. Given that the average income of public housing households was just $14,444 in 2016, rental adjustments and loss of subsidies can be detrimental to very low-income households, regardless of minor boosts in income.65

How does access to housing relate to access to education?

It should come as no surprise that where you live greatly influences where you can attend school. Access to education often is directly related to access to housing, particularly to housing location. Decades of discriminatory government policies have led to racially segregated neighborhoods and cities across the country, greatly limiting the ability of children and families of color to access high- quality public education.66 

Historically, local jurisdictions often chose to locate public housing on cheaper land in resource-poor areas, creating pockets of concentrated poverty. Highway construction further isolated many public housing communities. This has caused the majority of public housing to be located in urban areas that are racially and economically segregated, which corresponds with limited access to high- performing schools. According to HUD data, the average neighborhood poverty rate for public housing units (using census tracts as a proxy for neighborhoods) was 33 percent, significantly higher than the national poverty rate of approximately 12 percent.67 

Currently, funding, regulatory and political constraints continue to make it difficult to develop and preserve affordable housing, public housing or otherwise, in neighborhoods that offer the greatest opportunity and amenities to residents, including quality education. Today, low-poverty communities across the country attempt to maintain this spatial mismatch, a legacy of discriminatory redlining, through local zoning decisions that prevent the construction of multifamily housing. In addition to restrictive zoning that prevents multifamily housing, residents of low-poverty communities also may oppose new, dense construction, a practice often known as “not in my backyard,” or NIMBYism. By preventing multifamily housing, these jurisdictions and their residents make it more difficult and costly, if not impossible, to develop affordable housing for renters with lower incomes in their neighborhoods. These practices, often referred to as exclusionary zoning, preserve existing patterns of neighborhood segregation and largely prevent children and families in low- income households from accessing amenity-rich neighborhoods and equitable educational opportunities. 

“Housing mobility” is one approach to linking access to housing to access to education, among other opportunities. Tenant-based vouchers, for example, are intended to increase a tenant’s housing mobility, enabling them to access housing in a neighborhood of their choosing. As compared to the average neighborhood poverty rate of 33 percent for public housing units, the average poverty rate for voucher holders is slightly lower, at 24 percent, although still well above the national average.68 Ultimately, voucher holders’ use of their voucher may be constrained by such program requirements as payment standards, which limit the amount of monthly housing assistance that a family can receive. In higher-cost neighborhoods — often those that offer greater access to opportunity and high- quality schools — voucher holders are responsible for paying the difference between the payment standard and the total rent. Because most families in low-income households are unable to take on this additional financial burden, they typically are priced out of higher- cost neighborhoods.

[057]

57 Fischer, Will, “Chart Book: Rental Assistance Reduces Hardship, Promotes Children’s Long-Term Success,” CBPP, updated July 5, 2016 https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/chart-book-rental-assistance-reduces-hardship-promotes-childrens-long-term-success

[058]

58 Cutuli, J. J., C. D. Desjardins, J. E. Herbers, J. D. Long, D. Heistad, C.-K. Chan, E. Hinz, and A. S. Masten, “Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk,” Child Development 84, no. 3 (2013): 841–57, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC356637; Fischer, Will, Douglas Rice, and Alicia Mazzara, Research Shows Housing Vouchers Reduce Hardship and Provide Platform for Long-Term Gains among Children (Washington, DC: CBPP, 2019), https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/research-shows-rental-assistance-reduces-hardship-and-provides-platform-to-expand; and Ray, Anne, Melissa Gallo, Pauline Green, Sabrina Velarde, Barbara “Bobbie” Ibarra, Whitney Airgood-Obrycki, and Rachel Garshick Kleit, Homelessness and Education in Florida: Impacts on Children and Youth, (Gainesville: University of Florida, Shimberg Center for Housing Studies; Miami: Miami Homes for All, 2017).

[059]

59 Cunningham, Mary, and Graham MacDonald, Housing as a Platform for Improving Education Outcomes Among Low-Income Children (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2012), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/25331/412554-Housing-as-a-Platform-for-Improving-Education-Outcomes-among-Low-Income-Children.PDF; Walton, G. M., and G. L. Cohen, “A Question of Belonging: Race, Social Fit, and Achievement,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92, no. 1 (2007): 82–96, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17201544; and Grigg, J., “School Enrollment Changes and Student Achievement Growth: A Case Study in Educational Continuity,” Sociology of Education 85, no. 4 (2012): 388–404, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0038040712441374

[060]

60 For more information, see: Brennan, Maya, and Martha Galvez, Housing as a Platform: Strengthening the Foundation for Well-Being (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, September 2017), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93606/housing-as-platform_1.pdf

[061]

61 Chetty, R., and N. Hendren, “The Impacts of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility I: Childhood Exposure Effects,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 133, no. 3 (2018): 1107– 62, https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/hendren/files/movers_paper1.pdf; Keene, D., M. Bader, and J. Ailshire, “Length of Residence and Social Integration: The Contingent Effects of Neighborhood Poverty,” Health & Place 21 (2013): 171–78, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1353829213000233?via%3Dihub; and Sharkey, Patrick, Stuck in Place: Urban Neighborhoods and the End of Progress Toward Racial Equality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013).

[064]

64 “About the Resident Opportunities and Self Sufficiency (ROSS) Grant Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/ph/ross/about

[066]

66 For more information on the lingering patterns of segregation by race and income in the United States, see Rucker Johnson’s Children of the Dream: Why School Integration Works (New York, NY: Basic Books and Russell Sage Foundation Press, 2019); Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America (New York, NY: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 2017); and James Ryan’s Five Miles Away, a World Apart: One City, Two Schools, and the Story of Educational Opportunity in Modern America (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010).

[067]

67 Turner, Margery Austin, Susan J. Popkin, and Lynette A. Rawlings. Public Housing and the Legacy of Segregation. (Lanham, MD: Urban Institute Press and Rowman & Littlefield, 2008).

[068]

68 Turner et al., Public Housing and the Legacy of Segregation.

[062]

62 “Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/fss

[063]

63 “JPI Jobs Plus Initiative Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/jpi

REFERENCES: APPENDIX A

1“Rental Burdens: Rethinking Affordability Measures,” Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R), U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), https://www.huduser.gov/portal/pdredge/pdr_edge_featd_article_092214.html

2 Abu-Khalaf, Ahmad, “JCHS’ State of The Nation’s Housing 2019 Report Shows That Renters Remain Widely Cost Burdened Even As Burden Rates Declined Slightly,” Enterprise Blog, June 25, 2019, https://www.enterprisecommunity.org/blog/jchs-state-nations-housing-2019-report-highlights-continued-affordability-challenges

3 “FAQs,” National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH), updated January 2020, https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/homelessness-statistics/faqs

4 Galvez, Martha, Maya Brennan, Brady Meixell, and Rolf Pendall, Housing as a Safety Net: Ensuring Housing Security for the Most Vulnerable (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, September 2017), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93611/housing-as-a-safety-net_1.pdf

5 County Health Rankings & Roadmaps, “This Year’s Rankings Explore Severe Housing Cost Burden and Health,” County-by-County Blog, March 19, 2019, https://www.countyhealthrankings.org/news-events/this-years-rankings-explore-severe-housing-cost-burden-and-health

6 “Racial Inequality,” NAEH, updated January 2020, https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/what-causes-homelessness/inequality

7 “Low-Income Housing Tax Credits,” PD&R, HUD, May 24, 2019, https://www.huduser.gov/portal/datasets/lihtc.html

8 Area median income (AMI) refers to the household income for the median household in a given region. AMI is calculated annually by HUD for every metropolitan region in the country. AMI is posted here on the HUD website: https://www.huduser.gov/portal/datasets/il.html

9 “LIHTC Admissions, Rents, and Grievance Procedures,” National Housing Law Project (NHLP), April 27, 2018, https://www.nhlp.org/resources/lihtc-admissions-rents-grievance-procedures;Payton Scally, Corianne, Amanda Gold, and Nicole DuBois, The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit: How It Works and Who It Serves (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, July 2018),https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/98758/lithc_how_it_works_and_who_it_serves_final_2.pdf

10 “Policy Basics: The Housing Choice Voucher Program,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP), updated May 3, 2017, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-the-housing-choice-voucher-program

11 “Housing Choice Vouchers Fact Sheet.” Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about/fact_sheet

12 “Housing Choice Vouchers Fact Sheet.” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about/fact_sheet

13 “Policy Basics: Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” CBPP, updated November 15, 2017, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-section-8-project-based-rental-assistance

14 “Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” CBPP, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-section-8-project-based-rental-assistance

15 Docter, Benny, and Martha Galvez, The Future of Public Housing: Public Housing Fact Sheet (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, October 21, 2019), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/101482/The%2520Future%2520of%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Fact%2520Sheet_5.pdf

16 “About the Housing Credit,” A Call To Invest in Our Neighborhoods (ACTION), http://rentalhousingaction.org/about-lihtc

17 “LIHTC Preservation and Compliance,” NHLP, April 27, 2018, https://www.nhlp.org/resources/lihtc-preservation-compliance

18 Gramlich, Ed, Qualified Allocation Plan, National Low Income Housing Coalition (NLIHC), https://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/2014AG-259.pdf

19 “Housing Choice Vouchers Fact Sheet,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about/fact_sheet

20 “About the Housing Choice Vouchers Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about

21 “Tenant Based Vouchers,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/tenant

22 “Housing Search and Leasing,” in Housing Choice Voucher Program Guidebook (Washington, DC: HUD, July 2019), https://www.hud.gov/sites/dfiles/PIH/documents/HCV_Guidebook_Housing_Search_and_Leasing.pdf

23 “Appendix B: State, Local, and Federal Laws Barring Source-of-Income Discrimination,” in Expanding Choice: Practical Strategies for Building a Successful Housing Mobility Program, by Molly M. Scott, Mary Cunningham, Jennifer Biess, Jennifer Lee O’Neil, Phil Tegeler, Ebony Gayles, and Barbara Sard (Washington, DC: Urban Institute and Poverty & Race Research Action Council, May 2020), https://www.prrac.org/pdf/AppendixB.pdf

24 Cunningham, Mary K., Martha M. Galvez, Claudia L. Aranda, Robert Santos, Doug Wissoker, Alyse D. Oneto, Rob Pitingolo, and James Crawford, A Pilot Study of Landlord Acceptance of Housing Choice Vouchers: Executive Summary (Washington, DC: HUD, September 20, 2018), https://www.huduser.gov/portal/pilot-study-landlord-acceptance-hcv.html

25 Sard, Barbara, Project-Based Vouchers (Washington, DC: NLIHC, 2019), https://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/AG-2019/04-02_Project-Based-Vouchers.pdf

26 “Project Based Vouchers,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/project

27 “Project Based Vouchers,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/project

28 “Policy Basics: Project-Based Vouchers,” CBPP, updated March 1, 2017, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-project-based-vouchers

29 “Section-8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” CBPP, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-section-8-project-based-rental-assistance

30 “Renewal of Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/hudprograms/rs8pbra

31 HUD, Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD): Fact Sheet #10: The Difference Between Project-Based Vouchers and Project-Based Rental Assistance (Washington, DC: HUD),
https://www.hud.gov/sites/documents/RFS10_PBV_PBRA.PDF

32 “Renewal of Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/hudprograms/rs8pbra

33 “Public Housing,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/ph

34 Docter and Galvez, The Future of Public Housing, https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/101482/The%2520Future%2520of%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Fact%2520Sheet_5.pdf

35 Docter and Galvez, The Future of Public Housing, https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/101482/The%2520Future%2520of%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Fact%2520Sheet_5.pdf

36 Gramlich, Ed, 2017 Advocate’s Guide: Public Housing (Washington, DC: NLIHC, 2017), https://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/AG-2017/2017AG_Ch04-S04_Public-Housing.pdf

37 “Policy Basics: Public Housing,” CBPP, updated November 15, 2017, https://www.cbpp.org/research/policy-basics-public-housing

38 “Operating Fund,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/ph/am

39 “Public Housing: Where Do We Stand?” NLIHC, updated October 17, 2019, https://nlihc.org/resource/public-housing-where-do-we-stand

40 Bell, Allison, and Douglas Rice, “Congress Prioritizes Housing Programs in 2018 Funding Bill, Rejects Trump Administration Proposals,” updated July 19, 2018. https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/congress-prioritizes-housing-programs-in-2018-funding-bill-rejects-trump

41 “Public Housing,” CBPP, https://www.cbpp.org/research/policy-basics-public-housing

42 McCarty, Maggie, Libby Perl, and Katie Jones, Overview of Federal Housing Assistance Programs and Policy (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, March 27, 2019),
https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL34591

43 Daniel, Daria, “Affordable Housing Programs and Legislation,” National Association of Counties, May 14, 2018, https://www.naco.org/articles/affordable-housing-federal-programs-and-legislation

44 “Community Development Block Grant Program,” HUD, https://www.hudexchange.info/programs/cdbg

45 “Home Investment Partnerships Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing/programs/home

46 “About Housing Trust Fund,” HUD Exchange, https://www.hudexchange.info/programs/htf/about

47 Temkin, Kenneth, Brett Theodos, and David Price, Balancing Affordability and Opportunity: An Evaluation of Affordable Homeownership Programs with Long-Term Affordability Controls (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, October 2010). https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/29291/412244-Balancing-Affordability-and-Opportunity-An-Evaluation-of-Affordable-Homeownership-Programs-with-Long-term-Affordability-Controls.PDF

48 Perry, Andre, Jonathan Rothwell, and David Harshbarger, The Devaluation of Assets in Black Neighborhoods: The Case of Residential Property (Washington, DC: The Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings, November 27, 2018), https://www.brookings.edu/research/devaluation-of-assets-in-black-neighborhoods

49 “Continuum of Care,” Center for Evidence-based Solutions to Homelessness, http://www.evidenceonhomelessness.com/factsheet/continuum-of-care

50 “What Is a Continuum of Care?” NAEH, January 14, 2010, https://endhomelessness.org/resource/what-is-a-continuum-of-care

51 “What Is a Continuum of Care?” NAEH, https://endhomelessness.org/resource/what-is-a-continuum-of-care

52 “Public Housing,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/ph

53 “Housing Choice Voucher Program,” CBPP, https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/policy-basics-the-housing-choice-voucher-program

54 Project-Based Section 8 Rental Assistance FAQ (Washington, DC: National Council of State Housing Agencies [NCSHA]), https://www.ncsha.org/wp-content/uploads/Project-Based-Section-8-Rental-Assistance-FAQ-2019-1.pdf

55 Project-Based Section 8 Rental Assistance FAQ, NCSHA, https://www.ncsha.org/wp-content/uploads/Project-Based-Section-8-Rental-Assistance-FAQ-2019-1.pdf

56 Cunningham, Mary, Sarah Gillespie, and Jacqueline Anderson, Rapid Re-Housing: What the Research Says (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, June 2015), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/54201/2000265-Rapid-Re-housing-What-the-Research-Says.pdf

57 Fischer, Will, “Chart Book: Rental Assistance Reduces Hardship, Promotes Children’s Long-Term Success,” CBPP, updated July 5, 2016 https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/chart-book-rental-assistance-reduces-hardship-promotes-childrens-long-term-success

58 Cutuli, J. J., C. D. Desjardins, J. E. Herbers, J. D. Long, D. Heistad, C.-K. Chan, E. Hinz, and A. S. Masten, “Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk,” Child Development 84, no. 3 (2013): 841–57, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC356637Fischer, Will, Douglas Rice, and Alicia Mazzara, Research Shows Housing Vouchers Reduce Hardship and Provide Platform for Long-Term Gains among Children (Washington, DC: CBPP, 2019), https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/research-shows-rental-assistance-reduces-hardship-and-provides-platform-to-expandand Ray, Anne, Melissa Gallo, Pauline Green, Sabrina Velarde, Barbara “Bobbie” Ibarra, Whitney Airgood-Obrycki, and Rachel Garshick Kleit, Homelessness and Education in Florida: Impacts on Children and Youth, (Gainesville: University of Florida, Shimberg Center for Housing Studies; Miami: Miami Homes for All, 2017).

59 Cunningham, Mary, and Graham MacDonald, Housing as a Platform for Improving Education Outcomes Among Low-Income Children (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2012), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/25331/412554-Housing-as-a-Platform-for-Improving-Education-Outcomes-among-Low-Income-Children.PDFWalton, G. M., and G. L. Cohen, “A Question of Belonging: Race, Social Fit, and Achievement,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92, no. 1 (2007): 82–96, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17201544and Grigg, J., “School Enrollment Changes and Student Achievement Growth: A Case Study in Educational Continuity,” Sociology of Education 85, no. 4 (2012): 388–404, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0038040712441374

60 For more information, see: Brennan, Maya, and Martha Galvez, Housing as a Platform: Strengthening the Foundation for Well-Being (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, September 2017), https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/93606/housing-as-platform_1.pdf

61 Chetty, R., and N. Hendren, “The Impacts of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility I: Childhood Exposure Effects,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 133, no. 3 (2018): 1107– 62, https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/hendren/files/movers_paper1.pdf; Keene, D., M. Bader, and J. Ailshire, “Length of Residence and Social Integration: The Contingent Effects of Neighborhood Poverty,” Health & Place 21 (2013): 171–78, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1353829213000233; and Sharkey, Patrick, Stuck in Place: Urban Neighborhoods and the End of Progress Toward Racial Equality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013).

62 “Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/fss

63 “JPI Jobs Plus Initiative Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/jpi

64 “About the Resident Opportunities and Self Sufficiency (ROSS) Grant Program,” HUD, https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/ph/ross/about

65 Docter and Galvez, The Future of Public Housing, https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/101482/The%2520Future%2520of%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Public%2520Housing%2520Fact%2520Sheet_5.pdf

66 For more information on the lingering patterns of segregation by race and income in the United States, see Rucker Johnson’s Children of the Dream: Why School Integration Works (New York, NY: Basic Books and Russell Sage Foundation Press, 2019); Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America (New York, NY: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 2017); and James Ryan’s Five Miles Away, a World Apart: One City, Two Schools, and the Story of Educational Opportunity in Modern America (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010).

67 Turner, Margery Austin, Susan J. Popkin, and Lynette A. Rawlings. Public Housing and the Legacy of Segregation. (Lanham, MD: Urban Institute Press and Rowman & Littlefield, 2008).

68 Turner et al., Public Housing and the Legacy of Segregation.