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1 Lisa J. Dettling, Joanne W. Hsu, Lindsay Jacobs, Kevin B. Moore, and Jeffrey P. Thompson, with assistance from Elizabeth Llanes. “Recent Trends in Wealth-Holding by Race and Ethnicity: Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances.” FEDS Notes. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, September 2017.

2 Nick Noel, Duwain Pinder, Shelley Stewart III, and Jason Wright. “The Economic Impact of Closing the Racial Wealth Gap.” McKinsey & Company. August 2019.

3 The US Partnership on Mobility from Poverty. Accessed March 15, 2020,

4 Stanford Social Psychological Answers to Real-world Questions (SPARQ). “Measuring Mobility Toolkit.” March 15, 2020,

5 The US Partnership on Mobility from Poverty. “The US Partnership on Mobility from Poverty.” Accessed March 15, 2020,

6 Veronica Gaitán. “How Housing Affects Children’s Outcomes.” Housing Matters, an Urban Institute Initiative. January 2019.

7 Kimberly Quick and Richard D. Kahlenberg. “Attacking the Black–White Opportunity Gap That Comes from Residential Segregation.” The Century Foundation. June 2019.

8 Reed Jordan. “High-Poverty Schools Undermine Education for Children of Color.” Urban Institute. May 2015.

9 Policy Development and Research, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. “Housing as a Portal to Better Educational and Life Outcomes.” Accessed March 15, 2020,

10 The Ballmer Group. Accessed March 15, 2020,

11 Shiloh Turner, Kathy J. Merchant, John Kania, and Ellen Martin. “Understanding the Value of Backbone Organizations in Collective Impact: Part 2.” Stanford Social Innovation Review. July 2012.

12 Gregory Acs, Amrita Maitreyi, Alana L. Conner, Hazel Rose Markus, Nisha G. Patel, Sarah Lyons-Padilla, and Jennifer L. Eberhardt. “Measuring Mobility from Poverty.” The US Partnership on Mobility from Poverty. April 2018.

13 Srik Gopal and John Kania. “Fostering Systems Change: Five Simple Rules for Foundations Seeking to Create Lasting Social Change.” Stanford Social Innovation Review. November 2015.

14 Rachel Wharton and Alice Evans. “Systems Change: What It Is and How To Do It.” London Funders. 2020.

15 Peggy Bailey. “Housing and Health Partners Can Work Together to Close the Housing Affordability Gap.” January 2020.

16 U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness. “Key Federal Terms and Definitions of Homelessness Among Youth.” February 2018.

17 Martha M. Galvez, Maya Brennan, Brady Meixell, and Rolf Pendall. Housing as a Safety Net: Ensuring Housing Security for the Most Vulnerable. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, 2017. Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. America’s Rental Housing: The Key to a Balanced National Policy. Cambridge, MA, 2018. Aratani, Michelle Chau, Vanessa R. Wight, and Sophia Addy. Rent Burden, Housing Subsidies and the Well-Being of Children and Youth. New York City, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty, 2011. 

18 Dowell Myers, William C. Baer, and Seong-Young Choi. “The Changing Problem of Overcrowded Housing,” Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(1)(1996): 66–84; Claudia D. Solari and Robert D. Mare, “Housing Crowding Effects on Children’s Wellbeing.” Social Science Research, 41(2)(2012): 464–476.

19 Maggie Grieve. “Shared Measurement: Advancing Evaluation of Community Development Outcomes — Success Measures at NeighborWorks of America.” In What Counts: Harnessing Data for America’s Communities, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco and the Urban Institute, 2014, pp. 278–95.

20 Jeanine Becker & David B. Smith. “The Need for Cross-Sector Collaboration.” Stanford Social Innovation Review. Winter 2018.

21International Association for Public Participation. “IAP2 Spectrum.” 2015.

22Wharton and Evans, “Systems Change.”

23Ife Floyd. “States Should Repeal Racist Policies Denying Benefits to Children Born to TANF Families.” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. April 2019.